## Description

- Overview:
- This lesson unit addresses common misconceptions relating to probability of simple and compound events. The lesson will help you assess how well students understand concepts of: Equally likely events; randomness; and sample sizes.

- Level:
- Lower Primary, Upper Primary, Middle School, High School
- Grades:
- Kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade 5, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8, Grade 9, Grade 10, Grade 11, Grade 12
- Material Type:
- Assessment, Lesson Plan
- Provider:
- Shell Center for Mathematical Education, U.C. Berkeley
- Provider Set:
- Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP), Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP)
- Date Added:
- 04/26/2013

- License:
- Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0
- Media Format:
- Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

# Comments

## Standards

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population

Standard: Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population

Standard: Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population. Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations

Standard: Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations

Standard: Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Standard: Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize"Óto abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents"Óand the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population

Indicator: Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population. Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population

Indicator: Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and"Óif there is a flaw in an argument"Óexplain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., "rolling double sixes"ť), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations

Indicator: Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations

Indicator: Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Statistics and Probability

Standard: Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

Indicator: Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

## Evaluations

# Achieve OER

Average Score (3 Points Possible)Degree of Alignment | 3 (1 user) |

Quality of Explanation of the Subject Matter | 3 (1 user) |

Utility of Materials Designed to Support Teaching | 3 (1 user) |

Quality of Assessments | N/A |

Quality of Technological Interactivity | N/A |

Quality of Instructional and Practice Exercises | N/A |

Opportunities for Deeper Learning | N/A |

# Tags (7)

- Mathematics
- CCSS
- Common Core Math
- Common Core PD
- Sample Sizes
- Statistics and Probability
- Math Literacy Lessons

This is a lesson and assessment on Probability. It has many teacher resources. PPT, Lesson, assessment and student worksheets. It has students to consider theoretical probability and experimental probability. It addresses CCSS 7.SP.6 & 7.SP.7. I like the detailed teacher lesson that helps point out the different misconceptions that students might have about probability