# Generalizing Patterns: The Difference of Two Squares

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## Description

- Overview:
- This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students working with square numbers are able to: choose an appropriate, systematic way to collect and organize data, examining the data for patterns; describe and explain findings clearly and effectively; generalize using numerical, geometrical, graphical and/or algebraic structure; and explain why certain results are possible/impossible, moving towards a proof.

- Level:
- Lower Primary, Upper Primary, Middle School, High School
- Grades:
- Kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade 5, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8, Grade 9, Grade 10, Grade 11, Grade 12
- Material Type:
- Assessment, Lesson Plan
- Provider:
- Shell Center for Mathematical Education, U.C. Berkeley
- Provider Set:
- Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP)
- Date Added:
- 04/26/2013

- License:
- Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0
- Media Format:
- Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

## Standards

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 × 3^(–5) = 3^(–3) = 1/(3^3) = 1/27.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8 equals the well remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x^2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 – 3(x – y)^2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Standard: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Use functions to model relationships between quantities

Standard: Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Use functions to model relationships between quantities

Standard: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 × 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve linear equations in one variable.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Standard: Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y =mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y – 2)/(x –1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x – 1)(x + 1), (x – 1)(x^2 + x + 1), and (x – 1)(x^3 + x^2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Define, evaluate, and compare functions

Standard: Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Define, evaluate, and compare functions

Standard: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Define, evaluate, and compare functions

Standard: Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.)

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Functions

Standard: Use functions to model relationships between quantities

Indicator: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Functions

Standard: Use functions to model relationships between quantities

Indicator: Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Indicator: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Functions

Standard: Define, evaluate, and compare functions

Indicator: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Functions

Standard: Define, evaluate, and compare functions

Indicator: Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Functions

Standard: Define, evaluate, and compare functions

Indicator: Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.)

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve linear equations in one variable.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 x 3^(-5) = 3^(-3) = 1/(3^3) = 1/27.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 x 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 x 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that ‰ö_2 is irrational.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Indicator: Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y =mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y - 2)/(x -1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x - 1)(x + 1), (x - 1)(x^2 + x + 1), and (x - 1)(x^3 + x^2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 x 8 equals the well remembered 7 x 5 + 7 x 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x^2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 x 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 - 3(x - y)^2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and"Óif there is a flaw in an argument"Óexplain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, "Does this make sense?"ť They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

## Evaluations

# Achieve OER

Average Score (3 Points Possible)Degree of Alignment | 2 (1 user) |

Quality of Explanation of the Subject Matter | 2 (1 user) |

Utility of Materials Designed to Support Teaching | 2 (1 user) |

Quality of Assessments | N/A |

Quality of Technological Interactivity | N/A |

Quality of Instructional and Practice Exercises | N/A |

Opportunities for Deeper Learning | N/A |

# Tags (13)

- Mathematics
- Algebra and Calculus
- Geometry and measures
- Algebra
- CCSS
- Common Core Math
- Common Core PD
- Geometry
- Graphs
- Measurement and Data
- ODE Learning
- Patterns and Sequencing
- Proofs

## Comments