## Description

- Overview:
- This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students are able to: Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, recognizing and applying the conventional order of operations; Write and evaluate numerical expressions from diagrammatic representations and be able to identify equivalent expressions; apply the distributive and commutative properties appropriately; and use the method for finding areas of compound rectangles.

- Level:
- Lower Primary, Upper Primary, Middle School, High School
- Grades:
- Kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade 5, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8, Grade 9, Grade 10, Grade 11, Grade 12
- Material Type:
- Assessment, Lesson Plan
- Provider:
- Shell Center for Mathematical Education, U.C. Berkeley
- Provider Set:
- Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP)
- Date Added:
- 04/26/2013

- License:
- Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0
- Media Format:
- Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

# Comments

## Standards

Cluster: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Standard: Find area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Standard: Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Standard: Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Standard: Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8 equals the well remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x^2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 – 3(x – y)^2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Standard: Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Standard: Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables

Standard: Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2(8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Evaluate expressions at specific values for their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s^3 and A = 6 s^2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3(2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Standard: Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Cluster: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Standard: Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3(2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Evaluate expressions at specific values for their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s^3 and A = 6 s^2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Indicator: Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2(8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Geometry

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Indicator: Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions

Indicator: Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation "Subtract y from 5"ť as 5 - y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Geometry

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Indicator: Find area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Geometry

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Indicator: Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Geometry

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume

Indicator: Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables

Indicator: Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Indicator: Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Indicator: Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities

Indicator: Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 x 8 equals the well remembered 7 x 5 + 7 x 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x^2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 x 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 - 3(x - y)^2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, "Does this make sense?"ť They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

Degree of Alignment: Not Rated (0 users)

## Evaluations

# Achieve OER

Average Score (3 Points Possible)Degree of Alignment | N/A |

Quality of Explanation of the Subject Matter | 2 (1 user) |

Utility of Materials Designed to Support Teaching | 2 (1 user) |

Quality of Assessments | N/A |

Quality of Technological Interactivity | N/A |

Quality of Instructional and Practice Exercises | N/A |

Opportunities for Deeper Learning | N/A |

# Tags (14)

- Mathematics
- Geometry and measures
- Numbers and Operations
- Algebraic Expressions
- CCSS
- Common Core Math
- Common Core PD
- Commutative Property
- Distributive Property
- Exponents
- Geometry
- ODE Learning
- Order of Operations
- adult education

Laws of Arithmetic: Task provides teachers and students with assessment data to determine how students perform arithmetic operations by recognizing and applying the order of operations. Students apply distributive and commutative properties, write and evaluate numerical expressions.