# Solving Real-Life Problems: Baseball Jerseys

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## Description

- Overview:
- This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to: interpret a situation and represent the variables mathematically; select appropriate mathematical methods to use; explore the effects of systematically varying the constraints; interpret and evaluate the data generated and identify the break-even point, checking it for confirmation; and communicate their reasoning clearly.

- Level:
- Lower Primary, Upper Primary, Middle School, High School
- Grades:
- Kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade 5, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8, Grade 9, Grade 10, Grade 11, Grade 12
- Material Type:
- Assessment, Lesson Plan
- Provider:
- Shell Center for Mathematical Education, U.C. Berkeley
- Provider Set:
- Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP)
- Date Added:
- 04/26/2013

- License:
- Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives
- Media Format:
- Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

# Comments

## Standards

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve linear equations in one variable.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 × 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Standard: Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 × 3^(–5) = 3^(–3) = 1/(3^3) = 1/27.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (2 users)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Standard: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Standard: Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y =mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Cluster: Mathematical practices

Standard: Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.

Degree of Alignment: 1 Limited (1 user)

Cluster: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Standard: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

Degree of Alignment: 1 Limited (1 user)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and"Óif there is a flaw in an argument"Óexplain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Indicator: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that ‰ö_2 is irrational.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

Degree of Alignment: 3 Superior (1 user)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve linear equations in one variable.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

Indicator: Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y =mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 x 3^(-5) = 3^(-3) = 1/(3^3) = 1/27.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 x 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 x 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Work with radicals and integer exponents

Indicator: Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

Degree of Alignment: 2 Strong (1 user)

Learning Domain: Expressions and Equations

Standard: Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations

Indicator: Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

Degree of Alignment: 1 Limited (1 user)

Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, "Does this make sense?"ť They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

Degree of Alignment: 1 Limited (1 user)

## Evaluations

# Achieve OER

Average Score (3 Points Possible)Degree of Alignment | 2.2 (2 users) |

Quality of Explanation of the Subject Matter | 3 (2 users) |

Utility of Materials Designed to Support Teaching | 2.5 (2 users) |

Quality of Assessments | 2 (1 user) |

Quality of Technological Interactivity | 3 (1 user) |

Quality of Instructional and Practice Exercises | 2 (1 user) |

Opportunities for Deeper Learning | 3 (1 user) |

# Tags (8)

- Mathematics
- Geometry and measures
- CCSS
- Common Core Math
- Common Core PD
- Math Modeling
- ODE Learning
- Real World Math

This is a lesson with an assessment. It has many resources for teachers. It has detailed lessons, ppt, student assessment, sample student responses to evaluate. It addresses 8.EE.1 and it has students analyze different representations of the same function. (Table, Graph, Equation)