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Ancient African Kingdoms unavailable

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'Blast from the Past' with Jesse Jackson. Program focuses on the history of three of Africa's ancient kingdoms: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. To accomplish this, Say Brother Producer Marita Rivero and her guest Musa Eubanks (of the Afro Audiovisual Company of Boston) discuss and then introduce a filmstrip created by the Afro Audiovisual Company in conjunction with the Unitarian Universalist Association. The program serves to illustrate that the liberation of African Americans from colonized thinking can only be done so via the reexamination and revised representation of Blacks in Africa -namely, that Africa had an economic, cultural, and social history before European intervention. Also included are Say Brother segments 'Blast From the Past' (featuring an interview with Jesse Jackson from 1971), 'The Word' (featuring professor and historian A.B. Spellman's plea for more serious jazz on radio), 'Access' (which provides a summary of the work of the New World News Network), the 'Community Calendar,' and 'Commentary' by Producer Marita Rivero. Directed by Conrad White.

Material Type: Diagram/Illustration, Primary Source

Internet Medieval Sourcebook unavailable

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Historians teaching medieval history surveys almost always want to combine a textbook, a sourcebook, and additional readings. Textbooks, as an ever-evolving form, are probably worth the cost, but sourcebooks are often unnecessarily expensive. Unlike some modern history texts, the sources used for medieval history have been around a long time. Very many were translated in the 19th century, and, as a rapid review of any commercial source book will show, it is these 19th century translations which make up the bulk of the texts. Indeed the genealogy of such texts is a minor area of possible historiographical research. Although publishers need make no copyright payments to use these texts, there is no real cost reduction, compared with sourcebooks for modern history surveys. Many of these nineteenth-century texts are now available on the Internet, or are easily typed in to e-text form.

Material Type: Diagram/Illustration, Primary Source, Reading

Presidential Transition unavailable

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For nearly half a century, Paul Nitze was one of the chief architects of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Nitze assistant secretary of defense for International Security Affairs. In this video segment, Nitze describes key issues confronting the incoming Kennedy administration. This transition period focused on the goals of the country's nuclear-strategic policy; how to approach crises in every region, from the Middle East to Vietnam; and whether to unify the armed services. Included are Nitze's recommendations regarding a conventional military buildup and a 'no-cities' policy, which would target military forces instead of civilian populations. Nitze's interview conducted for War and Peace in the Nuclear Age: 'At the Brink' moves the viewer through his work with the World War II Strategic Bombing Survey, which placed him in Hiroshima and Nagasaki soon after the atomic bombs were dropped. From 1950 to 1953, Nitze served as director of the State Department's Policy Planning staff, and from 1961 to 1963 he was assistant defense secretary. As his interview reveals, Nitze held key positions during the period after World War II when the United States emerged as a superpower and Cold War strategic policies were being debated and defined. His classified 1950 report, National Security Memorandum 68, remains a seminal document: it was initially designed to persuade President Harry S. Truman that an increasingly menacing world required major increases in spending on defense and foreign military assistance. Nitze was also a major contributor to the Gaither Report, which stressed the need for a survivable nuclear deterrent by citing the vulnerability of the U.S. bomber force. Nitze opposed the doctrine of massive retaliation from the moment John Foster Dulles announced it at a dinner party in 1954. He was involved in crisis contingency planning, including the Berlin blockade and airlift in 1948, construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, and the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. During the missile crisis, Nitze recalls, he worked out the scenarios of increasing military escalation to pressure the Soviets to withdraw the missiles. Finally, he describes his disappointment that, although Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara initially embraced his no-cities strategy, following the Cuban missile crisis McNamara entirely abandoned the notion of winnable nuclear war.

Material Type: Diagram/Illustration, Primary Source

"It's Our Sons and Daughters:" Voices of the New York City Labor Movement In Opposition to the Gulf War unavailable

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When Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990, President Bush, whose popularity at home was flagging, opted to respond with massive military force even though many Americans, including Congressional leaders, believed economic sanctions would be effective. Bush initiated a massive, deadly air assault on January 15, 1991, and a brief ground assault followed four weeks later. The Gulf War killed thousands of Iraqi civilians and devastated most of the country's infrastructure, including hospitals and water systems. Many Americans who had previously questioned military action supported the war effort once it began, but many did not. In a break with their stance during previous wars, including World War II and Vietnam, many unions opposed military action in Kuwait. The union members recorded here articulated their reasons for opposing the war at an anti-war protest.

Material Type: Primary Source, Reading

"The street of the gamblers (by day)." unavailable

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By 1890, 200,000 Chinese immigrants, mostly men, lived in the United States, usually working under harsh and dangerous conditions. Chinese immigrants faced hostility that sometimes spilled over into violence. In 1882 Congress, responding to the demands of white workers, passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which severely restricted immigration by Chinese into the U.S. San Francisco's Chinese community was the largest in the nation in 1890, with 25,833 people. Arnold Genthe's turn-of-the-century photographs of San Francisco's Chinatown provide information about the Chinese community, but his characterizations often convey a distorted and ominous message. Despite its title, this photograph of Ross Alley, taken some time around the Chinese New Year holiday, is significant for depicting the unusual daytime congestion resulting from the seasonal unemployment of many Chinatown workers after the holiday.

Material Type: Primary Source, Reading

Action Potential Experiments unavailable

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Action Potential Experiments is a demonstration/simulation laboratory for neurophysiology based on the 'sodium theory' as originally formulated and tested by A. L. Hodgkin and his colleagues. The application includes simulations of the original experiments of Hodgkins and his colleagues, and of the classic voltage clamp and patch clamp experiments and an animated illustration of the 'sodium theory' explanation of Nernst potentials for potassium and sodium ions. The student can perform simple ion concentration experiments to test the predictions of the theory.

Material Type: Activity/Lab, Diagram/Illustration, Interactive, Lesson Plan, Simulation

MELANOMA THERMOGRAPHY unavailable

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Thermography allows the investigator to create a 3 dimensional image based on infrared emissions from tissue. Warmer tissues show up as yellow and white, whereas darker colors represent cooler structures. Malignant tumors are metabolically active and appear yellow and white on the images. Metastatic melanoma in left inguinal lymphonodes - metastatic melanoma in left leg -Prof. Camillo O. Di Cicco, MD

Material Type: Diagram/Illustration, Lecture

"They Want to Muzzle Public Opinion": John Howard Lawson's Warning to the American Public unavailable

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Playwright and screenwriter John Howard Lawson, the president and organizing force of the Screen Writers' Guild and acknowledged leader of the Communist Party in Hollywood in the late 1930s, became the first "unfriendly" witness subpoenaed to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) on October 27, 1947. This followed a week-long session during which numerous studio heads, stars, and others spoke at length about purported Communist activity in the industry. During that first week, film critic and former screenwriter John Charles Moffitt detailed Lawson's supposed instructions to writers on how to get propaganda into films. When his turn came, Lawson attempted unsuccessfully to read a statement into the record warning that the investigation threatened basic American rights and liberties. That statement appears below following the testimonies of Moffitt and Lawson. With nine other "unfriendly" witnesses, Lawson gambled that the Committee would issue contempt citations for their refusal to answer questions about their political associations and beliefs, and that after a court case and appeal, the Supreme Court would rule that such questioning violated their First Amendment rights. Further HUAC interrogations would thus be stopped. In 1949, however, before the appeal reach the high court, two liberal justices died, and the next year, the newly constituted Court refused to hear their appeal. The Ten were sent to prison as a result, and in 1951, HUAC continued its Hollywood probe.

Material Type: Primary Source, Reading